The process of increasing real productive assets. It can mean the acquisition of fixed assets such as buildings, fixed assets or equipment, or an increase in inventories and work in progress. This Keynesian definition of investment is the concept of flows. Investment goods are goods intended for investment rather than consumption. Gross fixed capital investment is the cost of new investment; net investment is gross capital investment minus capital consumption, that is, the amount of decrease in the value of fixed capital as a result of the deterioration of its elements, the impact of time or obsolescence. The Capital Investment Tax Credit is a tax credit that reduces taxation on the profits of investment firms.

Foreign direct investment is investment spending made abroad. Certain forms of expenditure aimed at increasing future productivity, such as research and development (R&D) to generate new technical knowledge, and expenditure on training and upgrading the skills of a workforce, are usually not are considered investments, although since they increase the amount of human capital, they can logically be considered as such.

… Acquisition of financial assets, such as company shares. In this case, investors are persons who own similar assets, and investments are what they own. In terms of total assets, they should be viewed as inventories. The Investor’s Chronicle is a British newspaper specializing in investor information and advice. Investment funds and investment banks are financial institutions that are usually considered investments in securities. In this sense, their investments differ from real investments in Keynesian terms. Investments in a financial sense are often used to finance investments in Keynesian terms, such as when companies sell new shares to finance the construction of new factories.

However, these two values ​​of investments are not inevitably linked: capital investments in tangible fixed capital can be paid from retained earnings without the use of financial intermediaries; and firms can use proceeds from the issuance of shares to pay off debt or finance acquisitions of other firms, rather than spending money on tangible investments. Investments are often viewed in conjunction with savings. At the level of the world economy, investments and savings made, by definition, should be equal. However, at the level of the individual, firm, government or country, there is no reason for either the expected or realized savings and investments to be equal.